Three-dimensional printing by material extrusion enables the production of fully functional dynamic piezoelectric sensors in a single process. Because the complete product is finished without additional processes or assembly steps, single-process manufacturing opens up new possibilities in the field of smart dynamic structures. However, due to material limitations, the 3D-printed piezoelectric sensors contain electrodes with significantly higher electrical resistance than classical piezoelectric sensors. The continuous distribution of the capacitance of the piezoelectric layer and the resistance of the electrodes results in low-pass filtering of the collected charge. Consequently, the usable frequency range of 3D-printed piezoelectric sensors is limited not only by the structural properties but also by the electrical properties. This research introduces an analytical model for determining the usable frequency range of a 3D-printed piezoelectric sensor with resistive electrodes. The model was used to determine the low-pass cutoff frequency and thus the usable frequency range of the 3D-printed piezoelectric sensor. The low-pass electrical cutoff frequency of the 3D-printed piezoelectric sensor was also experimentally investigated and good agreement was found with the analytical model. Based on this research, it is possible to design the electrical and dynamic characteristics of 3D-printed piezoelectric sensors. This research opens new possibilities for the design of future intelligent dynamic systems 3D printed in a single process.
Ladisk, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana
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